The Canada-U.S. agreement was concluded in 1986 and amended in 1992. It deals with cross-border transfers of hazardous waste and other waste between the two countries for recycling or disposal. The bilateral agreement aims, among other things, to provide both countries with safe and inexpensive waste management options, which are lacking either in terms of budgetary capacity or in adequate waste management technology. The United States has separate agreements with Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica, Malaysia and the Philippines regarding the importation and export of hazardous waste. The Basel Convention establishes a global system for monitoring hazardous waste shipped from one country to another. States parties to the agreement may not traffic in hazardous waste with non-contracting parties, but an exception is provided for in Article 11 of the agreement, under which contracting parties may enter into agreements or agreements with other contracting parties or with non-contracting parties. The Basel Convention on the Control of Cross-Border Movements of Dangerous Waste and Its Disposal is a multilateral agreement negotiated under the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) from 1988. The Convention`s negotiators wanted to promote environmentally sound management of exported and imported waste, particularly in developing countries. These agreements or agreements may also provide for controls different from those prescribed by the convention itself, provided that these controls do not reduce the level of environmental protection provided by the convention. The agreement also prohibits waste transfers between parties to the agreement and non-parties, unless such transfers are made under a separate agreement. The agreement must put in place an equally robust management structure for cross-border waste transfers.
The convention stipulates that the illicit trafficking of hazardous waste is punishable, but that there are no rules of application. The Waigani Convention (convention on the prohibition of the import of hazardous and radioactive waste in the forum`s island countries and on the control of cross-border movement and management of hazardous waste within the South Pacific region) is such a convention that came into force in October 2001. Parties to the agreement are required to comply with the import bans of other parties. After the first adoption of the Convention, some least developed countries and environmental organizations argued that it did not go far enough.